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  1. #1
    Embryo

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    Default VOLCANO EFFICACY TESTS, By Dr Hornby

    With permission from The Green Cross and Dr. Hornby, below is a series of tests done on the Volcano Classic.

    http://www.greencrossofbc.org/forum/viewtopic.php?id=21

    "Well we ran some preliminary experiments on Friday with the Volcano. I will report these
    findings with a caution that they are merely pilot experiments, to find our way only.
    Figure i put my foot in it by promising results, not thinking about the consequences that
    the findings may bring. And now we're realizing that we may be opening up a whole new can of worms.

    Firstly, we have known for some time that the Volcano does not deliver all of the THC, particularly at
    the lower settings, of around 5 and 6. We know this since we use high-pressure liquid chromatography
    (HPLC) to measure the amounts of the most abundant cannabinoids, that are present in the sample,
    before and after vaporization. By measuring the THC, for example, left behind in the sample carcass,
    we can determine the efficiency of the vaporizer setting, since we also know what we started
    out with.

    Since this is a study of heating cannabis we must consider a couple of things.
    One is that THC, plus the other cannabinoids, are not active as they sit in nature.
    For them to interact with the THC receptor, firstly they must be de-carboxylated or activated.
    Meaning CO2, must be kicked off the parent molecules, that in the un de-carboxylated
    form are acids, chemically speaking. De-carboxylation, in this case, is accomplished by heating,
    which, in turn, excites the chemical bonds of the, for example, THC molecule causing it to release
    carbon dioxide at the weakest bond. This, subsequently, activates the molecule, allowing receptor interaction.

    If more heat is applied to the molecule, eventually it will reach its boiling point and enter the vapor state.
    De-carboxylation occurs before evaporation and over a broader range of temperatures.
    And is critical for understanding cannabinoid pharmacology. Therefore in vaporization we have a two-fold
    process occurring that allows the medicine to be delivered. De-carboxylation, followed by evaporation.

    When we run cannabinoids by HPLC we see the acids of CBD, CBN and THC, plus trace amounts
    of these already de-carboxylated cannabinoids (alcohols as they're called, chemically). We normally total the acids with the alcohols to come up with total THC, CBD or CBN for the sample.

    In the experiments discussed here we vaporized a cannabis sample that had already been shown
    to contain an unusually high amount of THC, with relatively high CBD.
    We ran three separate experiments at Volcano settings 6, 7.5 and 9. At each test, the same
    weight of cannabis was placed in the volcano and two bags vapped for the same time period.
    Following vaporization, the carcass (sample left behind), for each temperature setting was analyzed
    for the three most abundant cannabinoids.

    We will attempt to tabulate below our experimental results.


    Volcano Setting THC remaining mg/g CBN remaining mg/g CBD remaining mg/g

    Temp: 6 THC: 260 CBN: 0.05 CBD: 0.6

    Temp: 7.5 THC: 245 CBN: 0.05 CBD: 0.6

    Temp: 9.0 THC: 75 CBN:0.05 CBD: 0.15

    With all HPLC analysis there is an error window associated with the quantification. This window is normally acceptable if it has a coefficient of variation of 15% or less. This is simply a statistical evaluation of the standard deviation or variation around the mean, divided by the mean and a percent value taken.
    So with THC there is often an error window of plus or minus 2% around the measurement and for CBD and CBN
    this is more like plus or minus 0.05%. To convert the above results to a percent value, simply divide by 10.

    So, what do we learn from these results. Nothing about decarboxylation, since it's not presented here,
    although much is gained from observing the chromatography (not shown), where a one to one decrease
    of the cannabinoid acid and increase in the alcohol is seen. Nevertheless, in the table we are showing only
    the de-carboxylated actives that are left behind.

    As stated earlier, the cannabis sample used in this experiment tested particularly high in THC,
    running at 260, + or - 40 mg/gram. As shown in the table, this did not change for setting 6 on the Volcano
    and changed only slightly for setting 7.5. We only see a significant decrease in THC at setting 9.
    These results also confirm earlier observations.

    The boiling points of the three cannabinoids measured are as follows:

    THC 200 C
    CBD 190 C
    CBN 185 C

    We can see from our before and after sample, that CBN is virtually all gone at setting 6, leaving
    only residual amounts. The THC, however, all remains at this setting. As does the CBD.
    At setting 7.5 the THC is fully de-carboxylated, but still present to roughly 95% of its original value.
    Interestingly, at this setting the CBD is only half de-carboxylated.

    At setting 9, all three are fully de-carboxylated and have moved to the vapor state.
    A small amount of CBD remains as does some THC.

    We can conclude from these very preliminary experiments that with the Volcano at setting
    6 all the CBN is gone along with the more volatile terpenes and aromatics. Yet at this
    setting, although the THC and CBD are being activated they have still not received enough heat
    to enter the vapor state. In addition, at setting 7.5, similar conditions hold, with the THC still
    not evaporated. It's only at setting 9 that THC receives sufficient energy to become volatile.

    That's it for today. And remember these results are preliminary.
    We will continue to conduct more experiments on the Volcano, next
    time focusing more on what happens to the CBD and at what setting."

  2. #2
    Embryo

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    "We did another experiment to six bags and behold, ALL IS GONE!!!!!!!
    THC acid, converted THC, CBN and CBD, all gone skyward.
    This is at Volcano setting 7 and six bags were taken.
    So between 2 bags, where virtually all the THC is still present,
    and bag six the THC is being boiled off. To 2 bags it's all
    terpenes and aromatics.

    Suppose, we will have to narrow it down, to see if there is
    one bag where the THC, fly's, at setting 7. Bet it's bag 4.
    We'll see..."

  3. #3
    Embryo

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    "We ran another experiment with the Volcano. This time we collected 6 bags at setting 6.
    This just doesn't move the THC into the bag, only decarboxylating about 20% but not boiling
    any off. Its aroma therapy at setting 6, very little, if any, active THC is delivered.
    Of course at this setting you will be blowing off the terepenes and other lower molecular weight
    aromatics, that do, indeed, have psychoactive properties. Incidently, these compounds, termed
    the essential oils, have been banned, as long as the plant. It's my notion that the euphoric part
    of the cannabis experience is a result of the essential oils and not THC.

    Finally, i must remind that these are merely preliminary experiments, used to guide the way
    to collecting more confirmatory data. All experiments of this type must be repeated a number
    of times, with means and standard deviations from the mean, determined."

  4. #4
    Embryo

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    I hope everyone can benefit from this information.
    Any vaporizer user should read it over!

  5. #5
    Embryo

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    very good testing dr.h

    i have one suggestion

    use a digital thermometer to determine the actual temp the volcanos are functioning at.

    im not sure if you are aware but the volcanos have a tendency to shift temperature range

    ie; my friends volcano outputs the same temp at 7 as mine does at 5.5-5.75

    thanks for all of your hard work

  6. #6
    Vegetative Member jb247's Avatar

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    Default Thank You

    This article makes me rethink my 'cano usage methods. I learn new things all of the time thru this great site!

    Peace...j.b.
    In times of deceit, telling the truth is revolutionary- George Orwell

    silentium est idem eadem idem ut consensio - j.b.

    Host - Brighton Area Compassion Club
    www.brightoncc.com

  7. #7
    "Meep" green girl's Avatar

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    That's a very cool read. Updates will be appreciated! Good thing we people can measure our own cannabis intake through inhalation. (Eating throws me for a loop each time as get used to it.) Some days I like the vape at 5.5. And I feel high enough. But most days I like to step up the heat as I draw bags. I just can't get to 9 though. I find much past 7.5 intolerable to inhale - too hot for me.

  8. #8
    Vegetative Member DoobieDuck's Avatar

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    Interesting indeed..I recomended a Vape to a close friend and I'll be sure to send him this link, smokeskunk420 thanks for posting..DD
    Please join me in my Fall 2012 Cannabis Flowers Pix thread..
    DoobieDuck the Macro Pix
    Don't forget, your comments and "likes" may be the only recognition Breeders, Photographers and Growers receive after putting in the hard work that they do to share theirs here with you. That appreciation goes a long way towards inspiring them to continue sharing it, Respect....DD

  9. #9
    Embryo John Berfelo's Avatar

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    I work with Dr Hornby on theses test about 1 year ago, the strain was GC.

    We did some more experiments with the Volcano, taking samples from various temperature settings and bag numbers. In all cases we are measuring the amount of the most abundant cannabinoids in a sample taken from the left-overs in the vaporization chamber. Since we know the mg/g amounts of THC, CBD and CBN in the starting material, we can determine how much of each cannabinoid has been "blown off", at what temperature setting and what bag number. I believe that earlier i stated that all of the active THC is not delivered until bag 4 at setting 7.5.

    In this set of experiments samples were prepared by a member assistant, according to a defined method.
    Here we investigated three other temperature settings of the Volcano: level 3, level 4 and level 8. At each
    setting 4 or more bags were collected.

    The sample used was a Kush with a THC level of roughly 150 mg/g. CBD and CBN both in the 3 mg/g range.
    These sort of values are very common here in BC and the profile very typical of BC cannabis.

    At level 3 we see efficient decarboxylation, so we know our sample is seeing heat, but not enough to send the THC skyward. This level is a good way of making an oral prep, from the carcass, since at bag 3 all of the THC is activated. But you would have to wait until at least bag 3 to get better than 90% of the THC in the activated form.

    Level 4 experiments were conducted the same as for level 3. With the same amount of cannabis (0.3 g) being processed and bags collected in the same time period. Level 4 is no more exciting in terms of lifting the THC to the vapor state and is simply a continuation of efficient decarboxylation of the THC-A to active delta-9 THC.
    Once again a bag 3 greater than 90% of the THC is activated, and less than 1%, blown off. Therefore breathing the vapors collected at bag 3, level 4, is at best aroma therapy, with very little active THC being delivered.

    Now we go to level 8. Immediately, at bag 1 all the THC is decarboxylated and roughly two thirds delivered.
    And at bag 3 80% of the activated THC is gone. So once again we make the observation that a level setting of 7.5, or above, is required for 3 bags to deliver activated THC. Lower settings, indeed deliver active medicine in the form of terpenes and aromatics, essential oils long know for therapeutic properties. I have often thought this is where the euphoric experience of cannabis lies in these, also prohibited, oils.

    Anyway, that was about $2500.00 worth of LC work to do that outlined above.
    We accept all donations to help support with this and continued research.
    Grow in Peace
    Dr. Hornby and research team..
    Last edited by John Berfelo; 07-11-2010 at 08:02 PM.
    Legal Medical cannabis educator/Advocate
    http://igreenplanetstore.com

  10. #10
    Seedling Trichome Pharm's Avatar

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    Very nice, thanks for sharing!
    One

  11. #11
    Seedling

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    Cool info you found there. I've been using my volcano classic for 8 months now. I find its most effective used before smoking a joint or bong. Something about it I can't use it exclusively.
    Member @ Vancouver Dispensary Society

  12. #12
    Seedling artisan du bonheur's Avatar

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    but what temperature does the position 6-7-8-9 ????
    i have a digital Vaporizer


    best regards
    Artisan
    crafts , the first firm

  13. #13
    Seedling

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    I often vape at 6.5 or 7 which in degrees is

    4 = 166 *C/ 331 *F
    5 = 178 *C / 352 *F
    6 = 190 deg.C / 374 *F
    7 = 202 deg. C / 396 *F
    8 = 214 deg. C / 417 *F
    9 = 226 *C /439 *F

    Actually its nice to reread what those temperatures are in the manual.

  14. #14
    Seedling artisan du bonheur's Avatar

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    i thank you a lot


    190┬░C is the best

    best regards
    Artisan
    crafts , the first firm

  15. #15
    Embryo woo2woo's Avatar

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    I really enjoyed the read. I found that I always run the bag many times at level 5-7 until I no longer see the "thicker" vapor. I can also taste when the amount I have used is "finished". I like to use a vaporizer occasionally, I still prefer joints or bong. I've collected most of my info on vaporizers from the cafes. I talk with the people who run the place, I inquire to which is the best level to set the vaporizer. At the end of the day it's all preference...

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